There are several degrees of prematurity, from mild which usually is not a serious problem, to the greatest, when the child is born till 28th week of pregnancy. Prematurely born children are usually devided into three groups – degrees of prematurity:
- Mild degree: the child is given birth between the 32nd and 36th weeks of pregnancy. Serious problems with such children accure rarely. In exceptional cases lungs can be not finally ripen, and they need help at respiration. Most often it is enough to give to the baby additional oxygen, and artificial ventilation is necessary only in rare instances. Such children have problems with feeding. Till 34 −35 week of pregnancy the child isn’t capable to suck milk and feeding is carried out by means of the probe. Many children are in hospital within several weeks before they are able to eat independently. Such babies can also experience difficulties with maintenance of body temperature. In this case they have to be in the couveuse for maintenance of temperature and observation over cordial activity and respiration.
- Average degree: the child is given birth between the 28 and 31 weeks. In treatment of this group of children in the last 10-20 years there were greatest changes. Almost all newborns in this group have not completely ripened lungs, and for respiration they need artificial ventilation of the lungs. However it is usually not required for a long period of time.
- Strong degree: the child is given birth in less than 28 weeks. Practically all newborns in this group have not completely ripened lungs, and artificial ventilation in most cases is required. The greatest danger to prematurely born children is constituted by pulmonary disturbances. Most often the respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) which arises because of a dismaturity of lungs becomes perceptible. Pneumonia and a bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BLD) belong to other diseases of lungs. BLD — the injury of lungs arising including, and as reaction to artificial ventilation and use of oxygen.