It is possible to mark out the main social and medical causes of premature births:
- constant stresses;
- difficulties in private life (absence of the husband, a divorce, family quarrels);
- bad conditions of accommodation;
- low social level;
- hard physical activity;
- bad delivery, shortage of vitamins and useful substances;
- age of the pregnant woman up to 18 years or after 40 years.
- an isthmic-cervical failure — a neck of uterus independently opens, provoking either an abortion, or premature birth. Can be a result of mechanical expansion of a neck — during medical abortion, cleaning of cavity of the uterus after an abortion or a fertilization of EKO;
- various infections of a reproductive system. Especially infections of urinary ways, can provoke premature births. Often such infections proceed asymptomatically, and the woman doesn’t know that she is sick. Perhaps, certain types of bacteria emit the chemicals enlarging development of Prostaglandin in a uterus. Prostaglandin is a substance of the lipid nature; it is possible to find them in various parts of an organism. They affect a consensual musculation and cause reduction or relaxation. In other words, they can cause reduction of a musculation of a uterus and provoke the beginning of premature births. Prostaglandin has also other functions, in particular it takes part in development of a circulation of a fetus;
- delicacy of neck of uterus: becomes the reason of premature births approximately in 20% of cases.
- multiple pregnancy: at pregnancy by three or four fetuses the probability of premature births is also enlarged. Frequency of polycarpous pregnancy increases at use of some methods of treatment of sterility. For place fetuses in a uterus becomes too little that can lead to earlier beginning of labors in comparison with normal. At pregnancy by three or four fetuses labors, as a rule, occur by means of Cesarean section in 6 or more weeks prior to term depending on a condition of fetuses. In this situation all personnel have to be well prepared, all necessary equipment should be ready for creation optimum conditions for the newborn. It is known that three or four fetuses in recent weeks pregnancies gain weight not so intensively, and the birth to term can favorably influence such children. Today experts try to implant only one or two fetal eggs during an extracorporal fertilization that allows to reduce risk of polycarpous pregnancy;
- wrong presentation, placental detachment;
- defects in uterus anatomy;
- abortion, dying down of pregnancy and medical abortions;
- less than 2 years from the moment of last labors;
- the 4th, 5th and more labors;
- deviations in fetation;
- late toxicosis;
- serious infectious diseases (cold, pyelonephritis, flue);
- illnesses of endocrine system;
- myocardium diseases (defects, rheumatic disease, HYPERTONIA);
- the operations performed during pregnancy — especially a peritoneum and organs of a basin;
- chronic illnesses of kidneys;
- diabetes mellitus.
Prophylaxis of premature births
Extremely important even before pregnancy to think of how to avoid premature births. Prophylaxis and well-timed preparation is necessary. First, before conception it is necessary to conduct examination of an organism, and to go throw a full course of treatment.
Elimination of the possible reasons (most often, infections) at a pregnancy planning stage belongs to prophylaxis of premature births.
To address the gynecologist in clinic for women at the earliest stages of pregnancy, for registration and observation, especially, if in the anamnesis there are premature births, abortions or spontaneous abortions. Regular visits to the doctor frame much more opportunities for future mother to have medical examination, to consult concerning a diet and to be informed on all process that it has to pass.
To enlarge the period between pregnancies. There is an increased probability of premature births at pregnancy at once or during short time after the birth of a child. Actually, the risk augmentation becomes perceptible more than twice for an interval less than 6 months between pregnancies. First, a lot of time leaves on that the uterus returned to a normal state, and there is a risk of inflammations. Secondly, the short interval between pregnancies reduces time, for replenishment of the exhausted maternal organism reserves of the vitamins, minerals and amino acids consumed during the previous pregnancy.
The pregnant woman has to watch the delivery, use vitamin-rich and minerals a nutrition or special vitamin complexes for pregnant women. Low concentration of vitamins, minerals, proteins and energy in an organism involve risk of decrease of a circulation and the raised maternal infection, which both can potentially enlarge risk of premature births.
Keeping of a regimen of rest and drink. The adequate regimen of rest and enough liquid promote good blood circulation, oxygen, vitamins and nutrients for the growing fetus.
It is necessary to avoid emotional shocks, a mental and social strain. The depression, family troubles and stressful circumstances, such as serious material difficulties, were also bound to the beginning of premature births.
Well-timed testing, identification and treatment of infections during pregnancy.
Prophylaxis, identification and treatment of the complications, which arose during pregnancy.
Regular an US control behind fetation.
If there is a risk of premature births, then during critical terms (2-3, 4-12 and 18-22 weeks) obligatory hospitalization in maternity hospital is recommended. In a hospital, the preventive therapy referred on pregnancy conservation is carried out.
To know symptoms of premature births:
- reduction of a uterus,
- colic pains in a bottom of a stomach
- allocation from a vagina.
It is important to remember that premature births begin unexpectedly, most often when there is no one capable to give necessary help. Thus, the best way to be saved from premature births — to keep above-mentioned references.
When future mother is healthy, and pregnancy proceeds without pathologies, it is improbable that premature birth will begin.